A brief chronological account of mass massacres in Kashmir that this area has witnessed and its people have suffered since 1931

The Dogra rule, followed by Indian occupation in 1947, is a bleak chapter in the history of Jammu and Kashmir. The Dogra rule, which continued from 1846-1947, is considered as the gloomiest period. Indian armed forces occupied a major part of Jammu and Kashmir on October 27, 1947 that is continuing to date.
The Indian troops pursued the policy of suppression in a systematic manner to reduce the overwhelming Muslim majority in occupied Jammu and Kashmir. To achieve this objective Indian troops started the process of mass massacre. There are plenty of events and evidences to support this gory fact.

July 13:The people of Kashmir had been raising their voice against the Dogra usurpation of their land and as a result they faced brutal consequences. On July 13, 1931, a large number of Kashmiris gathered in front of the Srinagar central jail, at a time when the trial of a youth Abdul Qadeer accused of involvement in a case of agitation, was in progress inside the jail. The objective was to demonstrate solidarity with the young man. As the time for obligatory prayer approached a young Kashmiri stood for Azan (Call for the prayer) and the Dogra police opened fire on him, and he got martyred. Thereby, another youth took the place of the martyred young man and started the Azan. He too was shot dead. In this way 22 Kashmiris embraced martyrdom in their efforts to complete the Azan.

August 26: In June 1947, people of Poonch had launched a no-tax campaign against the heavy taxation of Maharaja. To curb the agitation, Maharaja Hari Singh, the last Dogra ruler of the state, ordered the use of brute military force. On August 26 the protesters were confronted by the Dogra-armed forces. The Dogra troops opened bran-gun fire on the huge crowd of 5,000 civilians, martyring and wounding hundreds of them.

October-November: Maharaja Hari Singh fled from Srinagar to Jammu on October 26th 1947, as the liberation activists were poised in Srinagar’s suburbs to capture the city. On reaching Jammu, he issued orders to his troops and police besides the Hindu extremist groups, to kill Muslims found anywhere. The Muslims were asked to assemble in parade ground in Jammu so that they would be driven to Pakistan in lorries. While on their way, on October 20, 1947, eight thousand Muslims were massacred at Malatank Jammu. On October 22, 1947 at least 14000 Muslims were massacred at Saniya Jammu and 15,000 Muslims were gunned down near the bridge at Akhnoor.

On November 5 and 6, 1947, more than 100 lories, loaded with women, children and old men were taken into the wilderness of Kuthua forests. Hindu extremists and armed gangs were let loose on these innocent people and an unparallel butchery was perpetrated, killing thousands of them. Women were raped, molested and their valuables looted. All these bloodsheds were taking place in full view of the Indian army, which had by that time occupied a major part of the state. In another act of butchery, a large gathering of 25000 Muslims, in Miran Sahib and Ranbir Singhpora, were machine-gunned.

During migration to Pakistan in 1947, nearly 300,000 people were massacred in cold
British daily “the London Times” wrote on October 10, 1947 in a report from its special correspondent in India that the Maharaja, under his own supervision, got assassinated 237,000 Muslims, using military forces in Jammu area. The editor of “Statesman” Ian Stephen, in his book “Horned Moon” wrote that till the end of autumn 1947, more than 200,000 Muslims were assassinated.

Right from 1947, the fury of mass killings is going on unabated. Kashmiris suffered massacres in 1965 and 1971. Since 1989, India increased its acts of brutalities and people were killed in mass groups. Some of the savage events are as under.

January 8:Firing at various places in Srinagar city, 17 people were killed. Enquiry ordered by then Governor Jagmohan. No outcome appeared.
January 15: In Handwara town, the Indian army and paramilitary forces shot dead 17 unarmed civilians including one woman when troops opened unprovoked fire on peaceful protesters.

January 21: 55 innocent civilians were killed in the localities of Basantbagh and Gawkadal in Srinagar city by CRPF troops when more than 20,000 people took to the streets, defying curfew.

January 22: The Indian army and paramilitary forces resorted to unprovoked firing at Alamghari Bazar Srinagar and killed many unarmed civilians. The people had come out unarmed to protest against the military killings at Gaw Kadal in Srinagar.
January 25: 26 civilians were shot dead in Handwara town of Kupwara district. The township was set afire by BSF after the latter was panicked by a bang. Some of the slain persons including women were roasted alive.

March 1: In order to halt massive demonstrations by the people, who were to submit a memorandum to United Nations Military Observers Group on India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP), Indian army opened fire at Tengpora bypass and Zakoora crossing in Srinagar, killing 21 and 26 demonstrators, respectively.

May 21: Seventy persons were put to death by CRPF troops near Islamia College Srinagar. The unarmed civilian mourners were carrying the dead body of late Mirwaiz Molvi Muhammad Farooq, prominent liberation leader and father of APHC chairman, Mirwaiz Umar Farooq. More than three hundred people were injured. Five women, one of them pregnant, were killed. Even minors were not spared. The forces did not spare even the coffin-bearers. The dead body of late Mirwaiz was also shot at.

August 6: The troops besieged Mashali Mohalla in Srinagar, raided the houses of local inhabitants and killed innocent civilians. In this incident more than two-dozen people were brutalized, of whom nine died on the spot.

August 10: BSF cordoned off the whole area of Pazipora, Kupwara. The male inmates were ordered to gather in a park for identification parade. The locals objected to let ladies stay at their homes without being accompanied by any male members. Later the forces, in absence of male members, entered the houses and raped and molested a number of ladies. By hue and cry of the ladies, the male members tried to rush to their respective homes in order to rescue the ladies from the clutches of the armed forces. But the troops fired on the unarmed civilians of the locality and killed 25 of them on the spot.

September 11: A civil passenger bus, carrying about fifty persons, was intercepted by the BSF troops. Passengers were fired upon. 22 died on the spot. The bus was set on fire due to which eight persons got burnt alive.

October 01: The BSF personnel in Handwara town of Kupwara district started indiscriminate firing on the unarmed civilians, who were busy in marketing activities, killing 20 of them on the spot.

January 19: The personnel of 42-CRPF opened indiscriminate fire, killing 11 civilians in Magarmalbagh, Srinagar. Most of the victims were waiting for bus and being a busy place, most of the passers-by received bullet shots and died on the spot.
January 30: In Achabal Islamabad, the Indian armed forces opened indiscriminate fire, killing seven innocent persons.

March 11: At Rakhi Haigam, Sopore, in Baramullah district, Indian armed forces started indiscriminate firing, killing six civilians, including Manzoor Ahmad Dar aged only 12 years.

March 16: The Indian troops cordoned the area in Pishwari Trehgam in Kupwara district. At that time about 12 persons were offering prayers in a mosque within the cordoned area. The forces directed the worshipers to come out of the Mosque but they could not come out as they were engaged in the prayers. The forces entered into the Mosque and started firing. The Imam (Leader of the prayers) did not break the prayers. He was shot in his head. Other persons were dragged in the compound of the Mosque and six more persons were shot dead.

May 05: At Khayam, Khanyar in Sriangar, the troops fired indiscriminately on the pedestrians due to which, five persons including a girl, Aisha, aged three years were killed.

May 8: In Pir Dastgeer, Khanyar locality of down town Srinagar, troops of CRPF, BSF’s 2nd and 60th Bn opened fire on thousands of people who were assembled to bury some martyred Kashmiris. 18 civilians were killed. In this incident, one infant aged two years, and his father were also killed.

June 11: The CRPF troops opened indiscriminate fire, having been frightened by the sound of a tire burst, leaving 32 civilians killed in the densely populated area of Chotabazar, Srinagar. The killed included, shopkeepers, passers-by, old persons, women and children.

September 03: At Safanagri and Nelora in Pulwama district, the armed forces fired on unarmed civilians and more than 23 got killed.

April 2: In Aloosa village of Bandipore tehsil of Baramullah district, the villagers were kept confined to the village limits for the whole day by the Indian troops, while those out for fishing were fired upon. At least five boatmen were killed in the firing. Many bodies were recovered from the Wular Lake as they had been made to sink by tying heavy stones to their limbs.

April 13: During early hours of the day, BSF troops charged into the area, comprising Mohalla Hajama, Talian, Syed Sultanpora, Mahrajpora, and Chinkipora, started indiscriminate firing which resulted in killing of 13 civilians including one woman.

July 2: There was a tyre burst of a moving vehicle, which created a panic in the crowded market of Lal Chowk Srinagar. In response the CRPF troops, posted at Hari Singh High Street, fired indiscriminately, killing six civilians.

July 6: The BSF men subjected Ishbar locality in the outskirts of Srinagar to indiscriminate firing and at least 7 civilians were killed.

July 13: Army personnel entered the village of Nasrullahpora, adjacent to Budgam, and started indiscriminate firing, killing ten innocent people.

August 15: In Taj Mohalla of Tral in Pulwama district, BSF troops killed 6 civilians in cold blood. One of them was burnt alive.
October 2: 10 civilians were killed in Handwara town of Kupwara district by BSF troops.

December 12: Indian troops killed 7 civilians in Kishtwar area of Doda district.

January 6: 94 BSF-Bn personnel ran amuck, killing 57 civilians, mostly roasted alive, when they set ablaze 37 residential and 35 commercial structures at Sopore in Baramullah district.

April 10: 47 innocent Kashmiris were burnt alive when BSF set afire, most of the Lal Chowk, Srinagar, destroying 59 houses, 190 shops, 53 godowns and 2 office complexes.

July 01: In Baba Reshi area of Baramullah district, the troops started indiscriminate firing and killed 9 civilians who had come to the shrine.

July 30: In Hangubutch, Pulwama district 12 civilians were killed and 100 injured. A magisterial probe was announced but never completed.

August 01: Sub inspector Ajmer Singh of BSF, 60Bn along with three of his subordinates, killed a couple Abdul Rashid Dar and Hajra after barging into their residence in Daribal Srinagar. Their critically injured son Hilal succumbed to wounds in hospital. After thousands of people took to the streets in anti-India demonstration, the police and army resorted to firing, killing 10 of them.

August 14: Indian secret agents dragged out passengers from a bus on Sarthal link road in Kishtawar, Doda and sprayed them with bullets, killing 14 civilians.
October 22: Troops of BSF 7Bn opened fire on a procession in Bijbehara town of Islamabad district, killing 50 and injuring 100 civilians.

November 20: At Aadipora, in Sopore area of Baramullah district, the BSF personnel opened fire and killed five persons including a woman.

November 24: In Sangrama in Baramullah district, the BSF troops fired indiscriminately and killed seven unarmed civilians.

December 22: At Bulbul Nowgam in Shangas area of Islamabad district, the Indian troops fired indiscriminately, killing six civilians.

January 24: Indian troops killed 18 Kashmiris in Kupwara.

May 10: In Bandipora BSF troops, during crack-down, arrested 9 persons in presence of the locals, took them to a military camp in Bandipora where they were killed and their dead bodies were handed over to their relatives.

February 10: BSF opened fire in narrow business street, in Gad Kocha, Srinagar, killing 6 shopkeepers and injuring 38 others.

January 5: Indian armed agents massacred 15 Kashmiris, 10 of them belonging to one family, in Barshala village of Doda district.
June 8: In Kamlari village of Doda district, Indian armed agents killed eight civilians.

March 20: Seven civilians were killed in Sangrampura (Budgam).

April 7: A group of Indian secret agents swooped on Sanghrampora village, in Beerwa outskirts in Budgam district, and shot dead seven Kashmiris.

April 18: 27 civilians were killed in Prankote in Udhampur district in Jammu region.
September 19: In mortar shelling by BSF, 11 villagers were killed in remote village of Arin in Baramullah district.

January 26: Indian agents swooped Wandhama village of Ganderbal tehsil in Srinagar district and massacred 26 Kashmiris.

June 19: 25 civilians were killed in Chapnari area Of Doda district in Jammu region.
June 28: In Madwa, Doda 9 villagers were massacred by 26-Rashtriya Rifles, on the Eid (Muslim festival) day.

July 28: 16 civilians were killed in two villages of Doda District in Jammu region.
August 3: Twenty civilians were killed in Sailain village of Surankote, Poonch. The dead included seven children.

August 8: 35 labourers were killed in Kalaban on Jammu-Himachal Pradesh border.

February 20: Four civilians were killed at Muraputta-Rajouri, nine at Barlyara-Udhampur and seven at Bllala-Rajouri in Jammu.

February 20: In Baljaralan hamlet of Udhampur district, Indian armed agents killed 10 civilians. Apparently, the same group reappeared in Mora Pota in Budhal belt, and killed 4 members of a family.

June 29: Indian troops and their agents dragged out 17 civilians, including 5 women and 7 children, in twin hamlets of Morha Bichai and Sahotri in Poonch and killed them.
June 30: Fifteen labourers were killed in Anantnag district of south Kashmir.

February 28: Five civilians were killed near qazigund in Anantnag district of Kashmir.

March 17: Indian secret agencies killed 7 truck drivers near a BSF camp at Qazigund in Islamabad district.

March 20: 35 civilians were massacred at Chatisinghpora in Anantnag.

March 24: Five innocent civilians, missing since March 24, 2000, were killed in custody and subsequently roasted by army at Brakpora in Islamabad district.

March 30: 7 protestors were killed by SOG troops near Pathirbal in Islamabad district, who were demanding dead bodies of Brakpora massacre.

May 14: Five teenagers, arrested from Sopore, were killed by Indian troops in Tangdar area of Kupwara district.

August 1: 35 Amarnath Yatris (pilgrims) were killed by Indian secret agencies and CRPF troops at Pahalgam in Islamabad district.

August 1: 31 civilians were massacred at Pahalgam in Anantnag.

August 1: 27 labourers were gunned down in Qazigund and Achabal in Anantnag.

August 2: Seven people of one family were killed in frontier district of Kupwara in North Kashmir.

August 2: 11 civilians were killed in Doda district of Jammu.

February 03: Indian secret agencies killed 7 Sikhs at Mahjoornagar in Srinagar.

February 10: At Kotchatwal in Bhudal area of Rajouri district, 12 civilians including 6 kids and 4 women were killed by Indian troops and their secret agencies.

March 17: Eight people were massacred near Atholi in Doda.

March 21: At Mandi in Poonch district, the Indian troops used helicopters and gun ships and killed 10 Kashmiris.

March 31: At Doru, Islamabad, 7 Kashmiri drivers were killed by Indian troops.

July 21: 13 civilians were killed at Sheshnag in Anantnag.

July 22: 12 people were massacred in Cheerji and Tagood in Doda district of Jammu.

August 4: 15 villagers were killed in Ludder-Sharotid Har area of Doda.

August 6: Indian agents killed 7 civilians in Sajjar village of Atholi, in Kistwar tehsil of Doda district.

December 8: 10 unarmed civilians, including women and children, were killed in the indiscriminate military firing in Baramullah.

January 6: 6 civilians were killed at Luddu and Ramsu,Doda.

January 20: 11 civilians were killed at Behra, Poonch.

January 21: Indian troops killed 14 persons including 8 children of 3 families, at Salwa village in Maindher area of Poonch in Rajouri district.

February 16: 8 civilians were killed at Nirala. Rajouri.

May 14: 36 civilians were killed at Kaluchak, Jammu.

July 13: 28 civilians were massacred at Kasimpura in Jammu.

August 5: Nine pilgrims were killed in Nuwan Pehalgam in Islamabad district.

March 24: 24 civilians were massacred including 11 women and 2 children at Nadimerg village of Pulwama.

October 22: Seven members of a family were shot dead when armed Indian agents opened indiscriminate firing at a wedding ceremony in Domail area of Doda district.

April 5: Seven civilians were killed at Pahalgam in Islamabad.

May 01: 35 civilians were killed at Basantgarh in Udhampur and Kulhaang in Doda district.
Document – 1994 International Women’s Action: appeal cases

Amnesty International

@1994 International Women’s Action

On 1 August 1993, members of the Border Security Force (BSF) in Jammu and Kashmir shot dead Haja Begum, her young son and husband. According to police sources and eyewitnesses, a BSF patrol was passing through Daribal- Khanyar, when two gunshots were heard. The 10-year-old son of Haja Begum, Bilal Dar, was reportedly leaving his house when he saw BSF soldiers running towards him searching for the source of the gunshots. In fear, he ran back to his house but had no time to bolt the doors before the BSF entered the house and shot him. They then shot dead his parents, Abdul Rashid Dar and Haja Begum, as they ran into the room. Amnesty International knows of one daughter who survived.

A BSF officer who inspected the house after the shootings concluded that there had been no crossfire as the only empty cartridges found were those from the standard service weapon used by the paramiltary.

Demonstrations against the deaths were held in Srinagar, the capital of Jammu and Kashmir, on 2 and 3 August despite a curfew. On 2 August the demonstrators reportedly became violent and set fire to a government building. The paramilitary opened fire and one more person was killed. The following day, 3 August, the Border Security force again opened fire on demonstrators, killing two people.

A spokeman for the BSF described the shooting of the family as “unfortunate” and said that “those found guilty would not go unpunished” and shortly after the incident, an inspector of the Border Security Force was suspended from duty and then arrested for his involvement in the shootings. The government announced that there would be a court of inquiry into the incident, the nature of which was not further specified and that the Crime Branch would investigate the shootings. A magisterial inquiry was ordered three days later, its results are not yet known.

Reports of extrajudicial killings of unarmed civilians by the security forces in Jammu and Kashmir are part of a pattern (see UA 05/93, ASA 20/06/93, 20 January 1993 and UA 84/93, ASA 20/15/93, 25 March 1993)


Since early 1990 there has been an increasingly violent campaign for

independence in Kashmir. Armed separatists have kidnapped and killed

officials, members of paramilitary forces and civilians. Amnesty

International has repeatedly expressed concern to the Indian Government

about reports of deliberate killings of unarmed civilians by members of the

security forces, about widespread allegations of torture and rape by

members of the security forces and about arbitrary arrests of suspected

separatists, an increasing number of whom are reported to have

“disappeared”. Amnesty International is concerned at the continuing pattern of extrajudicial executions which are occurring in the Kashmir valley, despite the governments condemnation of such practices.

There were two large-scale extrajudicial killings in 1993: on 6 January 1993, members of paramilitary forces are said to have indiscriminately shot or burned to death scores of civilians, including women and children, setting fire to houses and shops, in retaliation for an attack by Kashmiri separatists earlier that day. To date, 53 people have reportedly been killed in that incident which happened in the town of Sopore, Kashmir. The government have ordered an judicial inquiry and an inquiry by the Central Bureau of Investigation into this incident. The outcome is unknown.

On 23 October 1993, at least 43 people in the town of Bijbehara were reported to have been indiscriminately shot by members of the Border Security Force who opened fire on a crowd demonstrating against the siege of the Hazratbal Shrine in Srinagar. A magisterial inquiry was ordered and the National Human Rights Commission of India are also reported to be investigating, asking the Ministry of Home and Defence for reports on the incident. The Border Security Forces court of inquiry found four officials responsible for the deaths in Bijbehara, formal proceedings against the guilty will started after the magisterial inquiry submits its report to the government.

Former Jammu and Kashmir Governor, Girish Saxena, ordered several

investigations of such abuses, in one case leading to charges of murder

being brought against the Director of the Border Security Forces (BSF).

Such investigations, however, have usually been carried out by police or army officials rather than by an independent and impartial body. The inquiry ordered into the Sopore incident is to Amnesty International’s knowledge the first of its kind ordered into such grave allegations of human rights violations. However, such prosecutions are very rare. The government says that action was taken against 230 members of the security forces in Jammu and Kashmir, but has failed to give details of the perpetrators, their actions and the punishments.


Please send letters to the authorities listed below:

– expressing concern at reports of extrajudicial killings in Kashmir by members of paramilitary forces, particularly the death of Haja Begum in August 1993;

– urging the government to order an investigation into the deaths of Haja Begum, her son and husband, to be conducted by an authoritative, fully independent and impartial body and that the findings of such an investigation be published in full and without delay;

– urging that those found guilty of any extrajudicial killings be promptly brought to justice, before the ordinary courts of law;

– urging that the relatives of the victims receive prompt and full



1) General K.V. Krishna Rao
Governor of Jammu and Kashmir
Office of the Governor
Jammu and Kashmir


Salutation: Dear Governor

2) Mr S.B Chavan

Minister of Home Affairs
North Block
New Delhi 119 991

Salutation: Dear Minister
V.K. Kapoor

Chief Secretary
Government of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir

Mr Dinesh Singh

Ministry of External Affairs
South Block
New Delhi 110 001

1990 Gawakadal (Srinagar) massacre
1990 Zakoora (Srinagr) massacre
1990 Tengpora (Srinagr) Massacre,
1993 Sopore massacre
1993 Bijbehara Massacre
1993 Lal Chowk fire
1997 Sangrampora massacre
1998 Chapnari massacre
1998 Wandhama massacre
1998 Prankote massacre
2000 Pathribal Massacre
2000 Barakpora massacre
2000 Chittisinghpura massacre.
2001 Chalwalkote massacre
2001 Kishtwar massacre
2002 Qasim Nagar massacre
2002 Kaluchak massacre
2003 Nadimarg Massacre
2004 Teli Katha massacre
2006 Doda massacre
2006 Doodhipora killing
2006 Handwara massacre
2006 Kulgam massacre
2006 Srinagar bombings
2009 Shopian rape and murder case
2008 “Muzaffarabad Chalo March” Killing of APHC leader Sheikh Abdul Aziz
2009 Bomai Killing
Sources: Srinagar Newspapers,Wiki,KMSNEWS,International Media,

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