Posted Sat, 04/10/2010 – 14:29
Muhammad Farooq Rehmani
1. In 1896 “ Majlese-Kashmiri Musalmanane Lahore” was formed by Mian Karim Bakhsh Raeese Azam Lahore, his son Mian Shams-ud-Din, Mian Nizam-ud-Din , Mian Jalal-ud-Din and Molvi Ahmed Din, Khaja Raheem Bakhsh and Doctor Sheikh Muhammad Iqbal.
2. On first Dec, 1901 “Muslim Kashmiri Conference” was founded. It’s president was Mian Kareem Bakhsh and General Secretary Mian Shamas-ud-Din.
3. On All India level was established “All India Muslim Kashmiri Conference. Its founders were Khan Bahadur Sheikh Ghulam Saq, Khan Bhadur Khaja Yousuf Shah, Nawab Sarbuland Jeng Bhadur, Haji Molvi Hameedullah Khan, Nawab Khaja Muhammad Azam Khan Raees Azam Dhaka, Mian Feroz-ud-Din, Mian Nizamu-ud-Din and Sheikh Muhammad (Gujrat). All these high profile personalities were of Kashmiri origin. They contributed to Kashmir awakening, rights of Kashmiris and grievances against Dogra rule.
4. In April 1924 Srinagar witnessed labour unrest by Silk Factory labourers against Maharaja Partap Singh. Hari Singh was his adviser. Dogra troops and Police along with cavalry attacked the labourers in Huzuri Bagh (Iqbal Park). Many labrourers and some soldiers were wounded in this clash.
q Chowdry Niyaz Ahmed (Punjabi) was appointed as special judge to investigate into the incident. He sentenced the labour leaders to six months imprisonment.
5. “All Kashmir Muslim social uplift association Srinagar was formed by Ghulam Nabi Gillkar in 1930. He became its first President.
6. In Fatah Kadal Srinagar near the house of Mufti Zia-ud-Din a reading room was opened, ostensibly to promote cause for the rights of Kashmiris. Molvi Abdullah Wakeel, his son Molvi Abdul Rahim, Munshi Naseer-ud-Din and Molvi Ahmedullah Hamadani launched it. Later the association of Ghulam Nabi Gillkar also joined it. Sheikh Abdullah also was brought in. He became its first president and Muhammad Rajab General Secretary of the reading room. A secret cell was opened for government employees, sympathetic to the cause of Kashmiris.
7. A purely religious party “young men’s association Jammu” founded in 1901, raised political voice against Dogra tyranny in 1928. It organized meetings and demonstrations in Jammu.
8. In March 1929 Sir Albion Benerji, senior minister of J&K resigned from his post accusing Dogra rulers of ruling people like dumb driven cattle. He said that 80% Kashmiri Muslims were under the oppression of non-Muslims. After this Muslims of Jammu demanded responsible rule in the state. Chowdry Ghulam Abbas Khan, Sardar Gowher Rehman, Allah Rakha Sagar and others were members of the YMA. Later Reading room group of Srinagar and YMA collaborated with each other.
9. On 19th April 1931 in the Municipal Park of Jammu a Dogra Police Inspector Babu Khem Chand on the orders of DIG Chowdry Ram Chand stopped Imam Munshi Muhammad Ishaq from Giving Eid Khutba. This sparked off protest demonstrations for many days in Jammu city. Ban on Khutba Eid in Jammu was followed by rumours and reports of desecration of Quran in Jammu and demolition of a mosque in Riasi, wave of anger against these incidents swept Srinagar and posters were distributed in the city. Police arrested one house servant for distributing posters in Srinagar. He was handcuffed and is called first prisoner of Kashmir movement. He was released immediately due to large scale demonstrations in Srinagar.
q People gathered in Jamia Masjid Srinagar to denounce incidents of Jammu and demanded punishment against criminals and basic rights for Kashmiris.
10. One Such gathering was held in Khankah-e-Muella Srinagar where Kashmiri representatives addressed. One Abdul Qadeer a servant of Mejor Abbot resident of NWF was listening to the speeches of Kashmiri leaders. After the meeting was over, Abdul Qadeer raised his voice pointing his finger to the palace said “destroy its every brick”.
q His sentence was reported to the palace and he was arrested and tried under 124 and 135 of RPC for treason on 25 June possibly. Kishan Lal Kichro was session Judge. But the trial was transferred to central jail Srinagar due to large public protest on 12th July Gawkadal witnessed large public demonstration against shifting of court to CJ.
q On 13th July people in thousands thronged to central jail Srinagar to witness the in-camera trial of Abdul Qadeer. It was Zuhar Time when the mob around CJ demanded an open trial of Abdul Qadeer. But the authorities were frightened and the Governor Ray Zada Tartilok Chand ordered soldiers to open fire on people. The indiscriminate firing martyred 17 Kashmiris and five wounded youth later passed away in Jamia Masjid. This tragedy shook Kashmir and the traffic from Srinagar to Rawalpindi and Srinagar to Jammu came to halt from 13th to 26th July 1931.
11. In the last week of July 1931 at Simla in the villa of Nawab Sir Zulfiqar Ali “ All India Kashmir Committee was formed and Mirza Bashir-ud-Din Mehmood Imam Jamaat-e-Ahmadiyah and Molvi Abdul Rahim Dad were elected as its president and Secretary respectively. But the groups main aim was to spread Ahmadiyet under the garb of Kashmir. Majlis-e-Ahrar did not support this committee. Later a new Kashmir Committee Lahore under the presidentship of Doctor Iqbal was formed in Lahore, who had resigned from the Kashmir Committee of Mirza Bashir-ud-Din Mehmood. Doctor Iqbal addressed a big procession of the Muslims of Lahore on 14th August 1931 on Kashmir day and condemned Dogra rule by sword over Kashmir.
Quit Kashmir Movement
1. On 19th August 1942 in Bombay Congress committee passed quit India resolution on the failure of Crips mission.
2. In 1946 during a meeting between BPL Bedy, Doctor Ashraf, Doctor Saif-ud-Din Kichlu, Muhammad Din Taseer and Sheikh Abdullah, the later was advised to launch quit Kashmir movement. Ashraf and Taseer presented a copy of “New Kashmir Manifesto” to Sheikh who accepted both suggestions. But subject to the advice of Congress leaders in Delhi. Gandhi did not favour quit Kashmir slogan. Meanwhile on 19th April 1946 cabinet mission came to Srinagar to see Maharaja and know the wishes of his people. Sheikh Abdullah who was in Delhi went to Lahore and then to Srinagar. In Srinagar Abdullah launched quit Kashmir movement.But it was not discussed in the working committee of NC. He wanted to regain his fame by this slogan.
3. On 19th May 1946 Sheikh Abdullah was called to Delhi by Nehru but he was arrested before crossing Kohala. Pandit Nehru tried to come to Kashmir to fight for Sheikh Abdullah in the Dogra Court Srinagar. Nehru was accompanied by Beldev Sehay, Asif Ali, and Devan Chaman Lal. All others were stopped at Kohala and Nehru was stopped at Uri. Finally the drama came to an end, when Nehru was compelled to go back to Delhi.
4. Some early Mulvis in Muslim Conference were Qadianis, and some politicians in National Conference were Communists.
5. Mirwaiz Yousuf Shah parted ways with Sheikh Abdullah due to the latters leaning towards Congress party.
6. Kashmir tragedy of 1947 occurred due to multiple reasons. From intrigues to unwise counsels and inopportune steps every thing casted shadow over the destiny of Kashmiris. The search for their future is not yet over, nor it is free from the mist and dust of confusions. *END